1. ЗОЖ

Держим удар: объясняем на пальцах, как работает иммунитет, почему посудомоечные машины - зло, а хорошие комедии и витамины - спасение

Татьяна Черникова
Татьяна Черникова
29.10.2020

Вопрос «Как укрепить иммунитет?» всегда в топе самых популярных в поисковых системах. А уж сейчас, во время пандемии, информацию об этом ищут даже те, кто никогда не следили за здоровьем. Осенью тема особенно актуальна: 23% нашего генома зависят от погоды, поэтому способность противостоять инфекциям и контролировать воспаления снижается.

Как же помочь иммунной системе? Да и вообще — нужно ли ей это, может, она прекрасно справляется сама? Укрепить иммунитет можно, или мы рождаемся уже с определенной, встроенной, системой защиты организма, а все обещания об ее усилении — миф? Редактор BeautyHack.ru Татьяна Черникова погрузилась в тему и отвечает на все назревшие вопросы.

T
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Что это вообще такое — иммунитет?

«Сеть клеток, молекул и сигнальных белков, слаженно работающих на благо человека во всех его органах, системах и тканях. Гениальная, упорядоченная, многомиллионная, подобная сети Facebook, запрограммированная защищать и оберегать нас, — так объясняет ученая Дженна Маччиоки в книге „Иммунитет: наука о том, как быть здоровым“, — этот бестселлер недавно выпустило издательство „Манн, Иванов и Фербер“. — Ее можно сравнить с крепостью, которая имеет несколько уровней защиты. Кожа и слизистые оболочки, выстилающие полость рта, носа и желудочно-кишечного тракта, — это не что иное, как первая линия защиты. Другие составляющие — лимфоузлы, костный мозг и селезенка».

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Иммунитет — это скорее генетическая лотерея: с каким родился, с таким и живи, или же нечто приобретенное?

 
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«Сеть клеток, молекул и сигнальных белков, слаженно работающих на благо человека во всех его органах, системах и тканях. Гениальная, упорядоченная, многомиллионная, подобная сети Facebook, запрограммированная защищать и оберегать нас, — так объясняет ученая Дженна Маччиоки в книге „Иммунитет: наука о том, как быть здоровым“, — этот бестселлер недавно выпустило издательство „Манн, Иванов и Фербер“. — Ее можно сравнить с крепостью, которая имеет несколько уровней защиты. Кожа и слизистые оболочки, выстилающие полость рта, носа и желудочно-кишечного тракта, — это не что иное, как первая линия защиты. Другие составляющие — лимфоузлы, костный мозг и селезенка».

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Что же до «врожденного иммунитета», то под ним обычно понимают передачу антител (молекул, заставляющих иммунитет реагировать на тот или иной патоген) от матери к ребенку. Эта система с рождения отлично функционирует, однако ей необходимо учиться для того, чтобы по-настоящему стать сильной и эффективной. Именно поэтому нельзя растить ребенка «в тепличных» условиях, пытаясь совсем оградить от инфекций.

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Дженна Мачиоки

 
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Как и отпечатки пальцев, иммунная система у каждого своя. Мы наследуем неповторимый набор генов, формирующих иммунитет, но это лишь стартовые условия: изменить этот набор нельзя, но использовать его можно по-разному. Каждый из нас в состоянии укреплять и обучать свой иммунитет. Ученые объясняют это так: ваши гены заряжают ружье, но курок спускает внешняя среда.

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Каким образом его можно укрепить?

Здоровый образ жизни

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Оксана Лищенко

врач стартапа Health Buddy, кандидат медицинских наук

 

Стоит отказаться от курения и алкоголя, заниматься спортом, сбалансированно питаться, заботиться о своем эмоциональном состоянии, а именно — отдыхать, расслабляться, соблюдать психологический баланс. К этому списку также можно добавить регулярный чекап организма и прием необходимых витаминов, массажи, контрастный душ, посещение бани и сауны, отдых на природе в разное время года.

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Борьба со стрессом

Из-за него выделяется гормон кортизол, который позволяет нашему телу быстро выделять энергию, что важно для реагирования на внезапно изменяющиеся условия среды. Однако грань между полезным стрессом и длительным тонка. Во втором случае кортизол начинает проявлять ненужную активность: подавляет иммунитет, приводит к развитию гастрита или язвы желудка, истощает кору надпочечников, что приводит к хронической усталости.

 

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Исследования доказывают, что люди, имеющие увлечения, которые поднимают настроение и улучшают самочувствие (тай-цзи и медитация, рукоделие и искусство, дыхательные упражнения), быстрее справляются с инфекциями. Просмотр комедий или юмористических передач положительно влияет на иммунитет, активируя клетки-убийцы, призванные бороться с вирусами и находить раковые клетки.

В книге «Иммунитет: наука о том, как быть здоровым» автор советует использовать японскую практику синрин-йоку («лесные ванны») и каждый день гулять среди деревьев. Благодаря этому падает уровень кортизола в крови, а иммунные клетки начинают вести себя активнее. Если не можете выйти в парк, используйте дома эфирные масла с лесными запахами: ароматы кипариса, смолы бальзамической пихты, смесь эфирных масел иланг-иланга и хвойных деревьев.

 

 

 

Позитивные эмоции

 

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Правильный сон

 

 

Важно спать 7-8 часов в сутки в темноте и тишине. Только в таких условиях в мозге вырабатывается мелатонин, который не только снижает уровень кортизола, но и оздоравливает, омолаживает нас, обновляется и укрепляется иммунная система, вырабатываются стволовые клетки костного мозга. И — да, важно отдыхать именно ночью. В 2007 году ВОЗ отнесла работу в это время к числу возможных канцерогенных факторов в силу сбоя циркадного ритма.

 

 

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Закаливание

Благодаря погружениям в ледяную воду лимфатические сосуды резко сужаются, что заставляет лимфу быстрее двигаться и активнее выводить из организма шлаки. Люди, регулярно принимающие контрастный душ, болеют на 30% реже.

 

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Спорт

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Александр Лаврищев

терапевт клиники «Семейная»

Организм включает режим экономии на функциях, которые не используются. Например, космонавтам необходимо совершать тренировки в невесомости, чтобы мышцы после возвращения на Землю работали нормально. Но даже несмотря на это, им необходимо некоторое время после окончания полета, чтобы вновь научиться нормально ходить. То же самое происходит и с иммунной системой — она поддерживает себя «на пике» активности, только если «знает» о том, что сейчас это необходимо. Регулярные физические нагрузки не только «сообщают» иммунитету о том, что сейчас не время расслабляться (это же происходит и при закаливании), но и борются со стрессом.

Дженна Мачиоки

 

иммунолог с 20-летним опытом

Недавно проводилось исследование, где участвовали 125 велосипедистов в возрасте от 55 до 79 лет, которые бóльшую часть взрослой жизни поддерживали высокий уровень активности — много ездили на велосипеде. Когда сравнили иммунную систему пожилых людей, не занимающихся физкультурой регулярно, и молодых людей в возрасте чуть за 20, также ведущих неактивный образ жизни, с пожилыми велосипедистами, — иммунитет последних превзошел остальные группы.

Излишняя дезинфекция - зло

COVID-19 научил нас старательно мыть абсолютно все. При этом мы убиваем не только опасные, но и полезные бактерии, лишая иммунитет контакта с микробами, которые должны были способствовать его укреплению, не причиняя нам вреда. Антибактериальные средства разрушают естественный барьерный слой кожи, то есть уничтожают защиту. Также ученые советуют мыть посуду руками, а не в посудомоечной машине. Там она дезинфицируется, что приводит к уничтожению полезных микроорганизмов, а при мытье вручную некоторые из ценных микробов сохраняются.

 

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Действительно ли фитонутриенты помогают противостоять вирусам?

 

Оказывается, да. Они не только защищают от инфекций, но и в долгосрочной перспективе спасают от хронических заболеваний.

 

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Что стоит ввести в рацион?

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— Флавоноиды (бобы, лук, яблоки, чай и кофе)

— Каротиноиды (красные, темно-зеленые и оранжевые фрукты и овощи, например, морковь, батат, дыня, листовая зелень и помидоры, последние, кстати, лучше есть с оливковым маслом в приготовленном виде)

— Карнозол (розмарин и шалфей)

— Ресвератрол (виноград, красное вино и ягоды)

— Галлат эпигаллокатехина (в зеленом чае его в 16 раз больше, чем в черном)

— Сульфорафан и дииндолилметан (крестоцветные, например, брокколи).

 

 

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Главные витамины и микроэлементы для поддержания иммунитета?

Витамины D и C, микроэлементы селен, железо, цинк. Однако диагностикой недостаточности этих микроэлементов должен заниматься врач. Среди причин дефицита витаминов и микроэлементов может быть не только пищевая недостаточность, но и лекарственная терапия, болезни слизистой оболочки желудка, генетические нарушения и болезни самой иммунной системы. Диагностика концентрации каких-то одних микроэлементов в крови бессмысленна. Необходимо комплексное лабораторное исследование крови с помощью масс-спектрометра, который расскажет врачу сразу обо всех микроэлементах в вашей крови, поскольку, например, дефицит одного микроэлемента может быть следствием избытка другого, который «вытесняет» первый. И этот «оркестр» необходимо правильно отрегулировать.

 

Работают ли иммуностимуляторы и народные средства: женьшень, эхинацея, комбуча, квашеная капуста?

 

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Тут специалисты единодушны: настоящие иммуностимуляторы, которые помогают при тяжелых болезнях, могут назначаться только иммунологом. Остальные средства - просто эффективный маркетинг.

«Из народных средств научно доказана лишь эффективность эхинацеи для стимулирования иммунитета, но только ее сока, а не сухого экстракта», - предупреждает доктор Лаврищев.

 

Мачиоки советуют чаще употреблять ферментированные продукты. Квашеная капуста, кимчи, комбуча, кефир содержат массу разнообразных бактерий и дрожжей содержат пробиотические микроорганизмы.

Сырая куркума оказывает противовоспалительное действие, сдерживает проникновение вирусов в клетки. Ее необходимо есть с жирами и со щепоткой черного перца.

 

Чеснок имеет соединения, улучшающие способность иммунных клеток бороться с микробами. Исследование показало: всего через 90 дней употребления сырого (!) чеснока появляется больше Т-клеток и NK-клеток - естественных киллеров, играющих роль тяжелой артиллерии в борьбе с инфекциями. 

 

Как понять, что иммунитет не в порядке: из-за частых простуд или есть еще какие-то признаки?

Александр Лаврищев

терапевт клиники «Семейная»

Если вы испытываете некоторую проблему (боль в горле, простуду, кашель, кровотечение и т.д.) более двух раз в год - это может быть признаком серьезного недуга. Поэтому хороший врач всегда посмотрит на это не только с позиций иммунодефицита, но и онкологического заболевания, диабета, психосоматического расстройства - то есть в целом! С другой стороны, есть целый ряд состояний, который свидетельствует о проблемах с иммунитетом. Например, частые кандидозные инфекции говорят о проблемах с местным иммунитетом, а также о возможном диабете и хроническом стрессе. Некоторые конкретные виды этого заболевания свидетельствуют о серьезном иммунодефиците: кандидоз полости рта, пищевода, к примеру, могут говорить о ВИЧ-инфекции. Поэтому всегда обращайтесь к хорошему врачу, чтобы узнать, есть ли у вас проблемы с имунной системой или это что-то другое.

 

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